Albumin (ALB) constitutes 25% of the proteins produced by the liver. It is a protein of a single polypeptide chain with a thiol group.The ALB gene is mapped to human 4q13.3.
Albumin from human serum has been used:
- in cyclophilin isomerase assay
- as a component in blocking solution for immunogold quantification of amino acids and proteins in complex subcellular compartments
- in G-pseudotyped HIV (PHIV) assay mixture to study its effect on GSK364735 antiviral potency
Albumin was used to test its effect on the in vitro bactericidal activity of cefditoren against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumonia.
It has been clinically used in serious and often life-threatening conditions, such as shock and blood loss due to trauma, burns, and surgery.
Albumin serves as a protein repository and functions as a binding and transport protein. Albumin binding dissolves the biomolecules in blood and ensures its effective transport. This prevents the loss of substance through excretion.
Pathological conditions like vasculitis, lymphangiectasia, glomerulonephritis, and hepatic sinusoidal hypertension might result in hypoalbuminemia.
Serum albumin functions as a carrier protein for steroi ds, fatty acids, and thyroid hormones, and is vital in regulating the colloidal osmotic pressures of blood. Albumin is also seen to bind to exogenous substances, particularly drugs (e.g., ibuprofen, warfarin), and strongly influence their pharmacokinetics. Oxidative stress leading to changes in the redox state of albumin has widely varied effects on its physiological function.